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Field Sampling Plan Report



The overall objective of this Plan is to describe minimum actions to assure that the exactness, correctness, sensitivity, unity, comparability, and representativeness of the gathered information are known and documented to achieve the specific information goals of the plan.

The sample set, chemical investigation consequences, and interpretations must be based on information that meet or exceed information quality objectives established for the plan.

The overall information quality objectives (DQOs) for this plan are to expand and apply actions for field sampling, chain-of-custody (COC), laboratory investigation, and coverage that will provide diagnostic  consequences that are legally defensible and are usable in conducting human health risk assessment calculations.

Field diagnostic consequences associated with the physical characteristics of the groundwater (e.g., pH, conductivity, and temperature) and with soil (e.g., headspace readings) will be classified as screening information.  Laboratory diagnostic information derived from samples gathered as a result of conducting the field program specified in the FSP shall result in the generation of definitive level information.


Site Description



Plan Task Start Date Finish Date
Site Location Surveys 01-08-2013 03-08-2013
Geophysical Survey 04-08-2013 06-08-2013
Conduct Sidewall Soil Sampling at Old Mormon 07-08-2013 09-08-2013
Slough 10-08-2013 12-08-2013
SCAPS Mobilization and Field Prep 13-08-2013 15-08-2013
Conduct Pre-Selected LIF Pushes 16-08-2013 18-08-2013
Conduct Groundwater Sampling 19-08-2013 21-08-2013
Conduct Field Selected LIF Pushes 22-08-2013 24-08-2013
Conduct NAPL Sampling of Monitoring Wells 25-08-2013 27-08-2013
Contingency Soil Borings 28-08-2013 30-08-2013
Conduct SCAPS Soil and Groundwater Sampling 31-08-2013 02-09-2013
Contingency Sampling Days – SCAPS 03-09-2013 05-09-2013
SCAPS Demobilization 06-09-2013 08-09-2013
Continuous Soil BoringsInstall Monitoring Wells 09-09-2013 11-09-2013
FASP Field Investigation 12-09-2013 14-09-2013
FASP Lab Mobilization 15-09-2013 17-09-2013
Conduct Field Investigation 18-09-2013 20-09-2013
FASP Lab Demobilization 21-09-2013 23-09-2013
Reporting 24-09-2013 26-09-2013
SCAPS Report 27-09-2013 29-09-2013
Preliminary Summary of Information 30-09-2013 02-10-2013
Draft Investigation Report 03-10-2013 05-10-2013
Final Investigation Report 06-10-2013 08-10-2013













Substantial time and effort has been invested in the expandment of a standardised set of sampling actions to make sure that information gathered are useful, and comparable to other information, allowing us to draw accurate conclusions about what is actually happening in the environment. Use of standard actions permits us to:

  • stay away from (or at least minimise) contamination of samples;
  • evaluate between samples at diverse times, by diverse people and at diverse sites
  • Draw significant conclusions from the information.

These standard operating actions outline the correct methods to use in the field and so avoid, or at least minimise, the risk of sample contamination – a major source of fault.


When sampling it is vital that the samples are gathered in this order:

  1. Water samples for chemical investigation.
  2. Measurement of physical parameters.

3 Any other samples

Chemistry samples are the most sensitive to contamination and, therefore, are sampled first. Additionally, these should ideally be taken using a grab pole sampler so there will only be limited disturbance of the sediments; whereas it may be necessary to wade into the stream to take the physical samples. Though, this is not always possible and alternative arrangements will be discussed later, but please note, a comment or note should be made against any and all samples where any part of the sample collection is diverse from the standard method. For instance, if there was a covering of macrophytes that had to be enthused before we could sample at a specific site, make note of that on the field observation form.


In addition, if we are sampling a number of sites on a single stream (i.e. sites upstream of each other) we should constantly start sampling at the most downstream site and work wer way up during the day. Again, this is to reduce the risk of contamination. If we stir something up in the sediments of an upstream site, we don’t want to be sampling it at a downstream site later on in the day.


If we have a number of sites to sample during the day and one is visibly greatly contaminated, then it is paramount to sample that site after everything else. This will avoid physical probes from being knocked out of calibration from the site in question; it will also stop from using unclean equipment at other sites during the day and thereby introducing contaminants to those sites and samples.


It is very vital that we do not smoke during sampling, as this will increase the risk of sample contamination. If we are a smoker, we must ensure we wear powder-free, nitrile gloves during sample collection to minimise the risk of sample contamination.


All personnel must be trained in identification of potential hazards at a sampling site. This involves listing potential dangers to sampling personnel when at the sampling site, such as: crumple of stream bank; declining into the stream; contact with spoiled water from waterways; and introduction to heat, wind and rain.


The subsequent table outlines ordinary risks linked with stream and drain sampling and connected avoiding methods. Note that this list is not comprehensive and it is up to the sampling team to measure each site before taking a sample to ensure it is secure to do so.


It is recommended that sampling should for all time be conducted in teams of at least two, for work-related health and security (OH&S) reasons. It is suggested that a map to, and the address of, the adjacent emergency department are incorporated in a security plan as well as a list of emergency connections.



Preservation methods for chemical parameters (on-site investigation)

Parameter Preservative* Container* Recommended volume (ml) Time between sample collection and investigation
Alkalinity N P or G 10 30 minutes
Hardness N P or G 10 30 minutes
Total residual bromine N P or G 10 30 minutes
Chloramines N P or G 10 30 minutes
Free residual chlorine N P or G 10 30 minutes
Total residual chlorine N P or G 10 30 minutes
pH N P or G 10 2 hours
Water temperature N P or G 125 3 minutes

reservation methods for microbiological and chemical parameters (laboratory investigation)

Parameter Preservative* Container* Recommended volume (ml) Time between sample collection and investigation
Fecal coliforms ST3 PPS or GS 100 48 hours
Escherichia coli ST3 PPS or GS 100 48 hours
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST3 PPS or GS 100 48 hours
Staphylococcus aureus ST3 PPS or GS 100 48 hours
Turbidity N/A P or G 125 48 hours



P Bottles and lid linings are made of the following plastics: high- or low-density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride or teflon
PPS Sterile polypropylene bottle
G Glass bottle
GS Sterile glass bottle
N No preservative required
ST3 Sodium thiosulfate at a final concentration of 0.01 % (p/v)
N/A Not applicable


The physical and chemical quality of contaminants has a thoughtful consequence on their sub-surface allocation and/or incidence in groundwater at a given site. Physical and chemical quality that may have an effect on the distribution of contaminants comprise:

  • pollutant solubility
  • existence of NAPLs
  • relative density (for instance in the case of NAPLs, LNAPLs such as oils are less dense than water, whereas dense NAPLs (DNAPLs), such as a number of solvents, are denser than water; for aqueous liquids, relative salinities are vital)
  • stability (chemically and microbiologically)
  • partitioning distinctiveness (e.g. sorption and volatility)
  • Aquifer redox situation.


Abundant factors influence the behaviour of a ground water contaminant plume. At the same time as any single factor provides some insight into the behaviour of the plume, examination of multiple LOEs provides the largely complete assessment of plume behaviour. LOEs can be grouped into three categories:



Lines of Evidence
Contaminant characteristics Site characteristics Plume characteristics
Toxicity Age of the release Plume length
Solubility  Presence of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)  Commingled plume
Persistence  Maximum concentration  Qualitative investigation
 Plume core size  Natural attenuation
 Hydraulic conductivity  Modeled behavior
 Ground water time of travel to exposure control area boundary  Trend investigation
 Ground water time of travel to nearest receptor
 Variation in ground water flow direction
 Variation in ground water elevation












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ANZECC & ARMCANZ 2000, National water quality management strategy. Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council & Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.

APHA, AWWA & WEF 2005,  Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn, American Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association & the Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC. (Available online at 

API  2005, ‘Collecting and interpreting soil gas samples from the vadose zone. A practical strategy for assessing the subsurface vapour-to-indoor air migration pathway at petroleum hydrocarbon sites‘, Regulatory Investigation and Scientific Affairs, publication no. 4741, American Petroleum Institute.

API 2006, Downward solute plume migration: assessment, significance, and implications for characterisation and monitoring of ‘diving plumes’, API Bulletin 24.

ADITC 1997, The manual of methods, applications and management, Australian Drilling Industry Training Committee Ltd, CRC Press, Florida.


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